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富士CCD EXR 新技术数码影像新品质

发布: 2009-8-23 16:48 |  作者: admin 

  CCD上感光组件的表面具有储存电荷的能力,并以矩阵的方式排列。当其表面感受到光线时,会将电荷反应在组件上,整个CCD上的所有感光组件所产生的信号,就构成了一个完整的画面。

  如果分解CCD,你会发现CCD的结构为三层,第一层是“微型镜头”,第二层是“分色滤色片”以及第三层“感光层”。

  第一层“微型镜头”

  我们知道,数码相机成像的关键是在于其感光层,为了扩展CCD的采光率,必须扩展单一像素的受光面积。但是提高采光率的办法也容易使画质下降。这一层“微型镜头”就等于在感光层前面加上一副眼镜。因此感光面积不再因为传感器的开口面积而决定,而改由微型镜片的表面积来决定。

  第二层是“分色滤色片”

  CCD的第二层是“分色滤色片”,目前有两种分色方式,一是RGB原色分色法,另一个则是CMYK补色分色法这两种方法各有优缺点。首先,我们先了解一下两种分色法的概念,RGB即三原色分色法,几乎所有人类眼镜可以识别的颜色,都可以通过红、绿和蓝来组成,而RGB三个字母分别就是Red,

Green和Blue,这说明RGB分色法是通过这三个通道的颜色调节而成。再说CMYK,这是由四个通道的颜色配合而成,他们分别是青(C)、洋红(M)、黄(Y)、黑(K)。在印刷业中,CMYK更为适用,但其调节出来的颜色不及RGB的多。

  原色CCD的优势在于画质锐利,色彩真实,但缺点则是噪声问题。因此,大家可以注意,一般采用原色CCD的数码相机,在ISO感光度上多半不会超过400。相对的,补色CCD多了一个Y黄色滤色器,在色彩的分辨上比较仔细,但却牺牲了部分影像的分辨率,而在ISO值上,补色CCD可以容忍较高的感光度,一般都可设定在800以上

  第三层:感光层

  CCD的第三层是“感光片”,这层主要是负责将穿过滤色层的光源转换成电子信号,并将信号传送到影像处理芯片,将影像还原。

  富士近期推出的CCD型感光元件取名为“Super CCD EXR”。据《电脑报》消息“在PHOTOKINA

2008,德国科隆,富士发布了具有革命性意义的图像传感器“Super CCD

EXR”,这块感光元件被富士公司影像部门的员工看做是绝地反击,以此来对抗最近新品、新技术迭出的佳能、尼康和索尼。这新一代Super CCD

EXR相比先前的Super CCD有三大方面的改进:1.全新的色彩滤镜排列方式 2.全新的像素合并方式 3.全新改进的电荷累积控制方式。”

  并且,根据富士官方声称,采用新CCD技术的富士消费级DC将于近期开始面市。

  其中,全新的色彩滤镜排列方式是最重要的改变环节。通过Super CCD EXR技术的“像素对”技术实现超高感光度和超低噪点。

  以往通过加强单位像素的增益以获得高感光度的方法会导致噪点的大量增加,而通常的降噪方法更会导致图像模糊的产生(画面锐度的损失)以及分辨率的下降。而目前实现高感光度的另一途径则是,通过像素合并技术以获得低噪点的图像信号。但是,传统的像素合并方法(沿着水平或垂直方向合并)会因为处理相同颜色的像素点之间的间距而导致错误颜色的产生,而抑制这一现象的结果就是图像锐度的大幅下降。

  EXR改变了色彩滤镜的阵列方式。这样两个处理相同颜色的相临像素点就会被完美的合并而做为一个像素工作。在这种设计之下,图像信息(光信号)的捕捉就达到了双倍效果,感光度也随之达到了原先的两倍,而“暗部噪点”变得极少。因此,在实现超高感光度的同时伴随超低的噪点成为完全可能,以此取代以往通过提高增益而导致噪点大量增加的方法。

  从上面的示意图看,CCD上像素点经过重新排列后确实对于光信号的采集有所提高,但并非厂商指标所称的提高双倍,因为同面积CCD,同像素值的机型,改变排序对于光信号采集量没有影响。但该CCD确实可以减少旧型CCD排序产生的杂讯现象,过去我们放大图片(特别是夜景图),会发现很多不均匀的杂色。在厂商公布的样片中,小编明显看到画面放到到200%后画面像素点之间的杂色减少了不少,换句话说就是画面更干净了。总的来说,该技术非常令人期待,特别是高感光度噪点的弱化是我们特别看重的,而具体画质表现待产品评测后再向大家展示!

Super CCD EXR结构

  

  EXR的高感光度/超低噪点技术原理图:

  现在市面上的消费级数码相机主要有2/3英寸、1/1.8英寸、1/2.7英寸、1/3.2英寸四种。CCD/CMOS尺寸越大,感光面积越大,成像效果越好。1/1.8英寸的300万像素相机效果通常好于1/2.7英寸的400万像素相机(后者的感光面积只有前者的55%)。而相同尺寸的CCD像素增加固然是件好事,但这也会导致单个像素的感光面积缩小,有曝光不足的可能。但如果在增加CCD像素的同时想维持现有的图像质量,就必须在至少维持单个像素面积不减小的基础上增大CCD的总面积。目前更大尺寸CCD加工制造比较困难,成本也非常高。因此,CCD尺寸较大的数码相机,价格随即偏高。感光器件的大小直接影响数码相机的体积重量。超薄、超轻的数码相机一般感光元件尺寸较小,而越专业的数码相机,感光元件尺寸较大。

通过该项技术,富士数码相机在夜间画面细节的表现力以及画面锐度和清晰度等方面都得以较大程度的提高,画面效果差异显而易见。

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shanghaikp (2018-7-29 01:23:21)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-28 19:09:30)
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qgkp886 (2018-7-28 16:25:38)
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qgkp886 (2018-7-26 15:30:57)
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zhitoushun888 (2018-7-10 13:48:51)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-04 14:23:01)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-04 08:18:58)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-01 01:43:32)
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