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没有闪光的相机

发布: 2010-9-28 09:43 |  作者: 黄一凯  | 来源: 《中国摄影》官方站点


使用暗光摄影拍摄的一系列照片,F使用多波长闪光灯拍摄,A使用环境光拍摄,两幅照片的快门均为1/100秒。R是最后的合成结果,画质与使用长时间曝光拍摄的L相去无几

计算机学家Rob Fergus正坐在波士顿一个昏暗的小酒吧里,突然一道强烈的闪光刺激了他的眼睛--他朋友为他拍照时的相机闪光。

头晕目眩之余,Fergus开始思考:想要拍摄到清晰的照片需要强光照明,这就导致在弱光环境下拍摄必须使用可恶的闪光灯。是否有办法不用如此强烈的闪光灯?是否有办法使用不可见光闪光依旧拍摄出清晰的照片?

Fergus开始着手实验,在经过一年的反复修改后,Fergus终于设计出了一款原型机。他将这款机器称作"暗光相机(dark-flash photography)",一款记录可见光波长以外光线的相机。这款相机也需要使用闪光灯,但并不会引起注意。拍摄的照片和使用普通闪光灯拍摄的效果一样,甚至更好。

暗光相机依靠发射、接受红外光(IR)和紫外光(UV)成像,这超出了人眼可识别的广播范围,也超过了大多数相机的成像范围。

普通相机使用滤镜阻隔了红外波段的所有光线,在设计这款原型机的时候,Fergus首先使用允许适量红外线通过的滤镜替代了原有的红外阻隔滤镜,以免过量的红外线充斥整个相机感光器。大多数闪光灯在释放可见光的同时也会释放红外光,因此这点小改动就可以让相机接受并记录红外光信息。

Fergus选择的这款相机拥有接受紫外光信号的能力,但是让相机释放紫外光则有些复杂。很少有人尝试如何用相机输出紫外光闪光,但是在一小帮紫外光摄影者那儿Fergus找到了自己需要的帮助。他们使用紫外光拍摄花瓣隐藏的细节,例如昆虫的爬行痕迹、能接受紫外光的花粉等。将闪光灯管上的保护镀膜抹去,就能使相机释放紫外光。

即便在经过如下改造之后,相机闪光灯光源依旧会释放出耀眼的白光。Fergus最后在一份光学产品手册角落里,找到了一款能阻隔可见光,允许红外光和紫外光通过的特殊滤镜。耀眼的白光消失了,只留下一抹微微的紫。

使用暗光相机,需要针对同一场景拍摄连续两张照片:一张照片使用环境光拍摄,不管环境多么昏暗都行;一幅照片使用无光闪光灯拍摄,记录红外和紫外光信息。然后,摄影师在电脑上将两幅照片的最佳部分合并在一起。"我们把环境光下拍摄照片的色彩信息和暗光模式拍摄的照片明暗信息结合在一起",Fergus的合作伙伴,纽约大学计算机专业二年级博士生Dilip Krishnan解释到。

将使用和不使用闪光灯拍摄的两幅照片结合在一起,得到的照片是两者本身无法比拟的。在弱光环境下拍摄的照片不是颗粒很重,就是画面模糊。这就是为什么我们在弱光环境下拍摄必须使用闪光灯提供额外的光线。但强烈的闪光灯不光会吓到被摄对象,同时也会破坏画质。除了使得画面失去立体感以及红眼效应,还会导致画面明暗不均。但是不使用闪光灯拍摄,又会丧失画面细节。如果能将两者的优点结合在一起,自然青出于蓝而胜于蓝。

无论使用机内算法或者计算机将两幅照片合成在一起,得到的结果都同样清晰,而且没有普通闪光灯带来的炫目光线。尽管如此,暗光相机还有很多问题需要克服。尽管这一技术可以记录大部分皮肤影调,但是红色的衬衣会因此表现得偏粉,雀斑可能消失。而且因为需要拍摄两幅照片,被摄对象没有办法保证完全静止。

来自北卡罗来纳州的职业摄影师Cramer Gallimore相信暗光摄影有着巨大的潜力。"你可以在不惊动野生动物的情况下拍摄出高质量的照片",Gallimore说,"对于法医摄影,一款可以在红外摄影与可见光摄影间切换的相机无疑更加有助于记录犯罪现场。"

TAG: 科技摄影 红外 紫外 闪光 法医
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